Read a potentially toxic post from the internet and tell us why it's toxic (this should take approx. 5 minutes). Note: You can complete as many HIT's in this batch as you want! But if your responses tend to be very different from what we're looking for, we might put a quota on the number of HIT's you can do in future batches. Also note: this is a pilot task, more HITs will be available in the future.
Participation restriction: providers/turkers for this task cannot currently be employed by or a student at the University of Washington.

Full Instructions    

You will read a post taken from somewhere on the internet, and describe whether it could be considered toxic/disrespectful and what identity-based group of people (e.g., women, people with disabilities, black people, etc.) it's disrespecting. We will then ask you what stereotype/aspect/characteristic of that group is referenced.

Please answer all questions from an American cultural perspective; try to think about what what other people in today's society would think about these. When talking about stereoypes, think about the ones that are (unfortunately) culturally present in our society. Note: we will assume that MTurk workers only have good intentions when annotating these posts.

Short annotation instructions

1)Tell us if the post could be offensive to anyone, and whether it was intentional or not (e.g. aggressive insult vs. badly phrased question).

2)If the post contains sexual content (explicitly or innuendo), explain which part.

3)Explain who is targeted by the offensive post (individual or group), which minority or demographic group(s), and what aspects of the group(s) are referenced. Use (overly) simplistic "GROUP is/does/can't ___" phrasing (e.g. "women can't drive", "gay men are feminine", "asians are good at math").

4)Tell us about yourself, and whether you identify as a minority.

Note: if the post is not understandable or only contains @-mentions or links, just select "I don't understand". You do not have to click on links to answer the question.

**Updated notes**
1. Please do not copy the text of the post as the aspect targeted; instead write about the implied stereotypes/aspects of identity-based groups.
2. Please focus on identity-related groups that are minorities (e.g., racial, ethnic, religious, sexual minorities) or groups that unfortunately hold less societal power (e.g., women, poor people, tragedy victims). For example, people who watch a TV show or like a certain famous person are not an identity-based group.

Background on our research project

At the University of Washington, we're passionate about understanding how potentially toxic or disrespectful language or stereotypes can be used against certain demographics/groups of people (e.g. racism, sexism, etc.). Although there is no direct benefit to you for participating, we very much appreciate your help in identifying and explaining such language/stereotypes, since this is something computational models have no clue about. We do not agree with any of the content/stereotypes presented to you, but it's important that we gather these annotations for research purposes.

Data collection & sharing
We will not ask you for your name, and the data collected in this study will be made unidentifiable to the best of our extent. We will securely store the data on our servers and only share with qualified researchers (e.g. who want to further the study of hate speech detection). If you later decide that you do not want your responses included in this study, please email so we can exclude your work.
If you have questions about your rights as a research participant, or wish to obtain information, ask questions or discuss any concerns about this study with someone other than the researcher(s), please contact the University of Washington Human Subjects Division at 206-543-0098 (for international calls include the US Calling Code: +1-206-543-0098).

Content Warning: posts were found on the (uncensored) internet; while it's crucial for us to annotate them, we do not endorse any of the stereotypes or offensive/immoral/rude material. You may find some of the content upsetting. If you have concerns, questions, or strong negative reactions to some of the content, please either email us (Maarten Sap at, or Professor Yejin Choi at or reach out if in crisis.

Sentence Toxic Intentional Sex Group referenced Groups Patterns Minority speaker
You only got the job because you're a woman. Yes Yes No Yes women (gender/gender identity/sexuality) women aren't qualified;
women get hired just for their gender
The movie with the all-muslim cast was a box office bomb. Yes Probably No Yes muslim folks (culture/origin/religion) muslims bomb things;
muslims are terrorists.
Niggas be like "i'm broke" but spending all their money on weed :joy: Yes Probably No Yes black folks (race/ethnicity) black people are poor;
black people smoke weed
A white woman called police on black people barbecuing. No No (statement) No
You are a MORON. Yes Yes No No
What do you tell a triggered feminist pansexual marine biologist to calm them down? I don't know, I don't speak whale. Yes Yes No Yes feminists/liberals (socio-economic/political/lifestyle) feminists are unattractive and fat;
liberals are (easily) triggered
pansexuals (gender/gender identity/sexuality) pansexuals are ugly and fat;
non-heterosexual women are ugly and fat
fat/overweight folks (age/body) fat people are whales;
fat people are ugly
Before we go, we should make sure Laquisha knows how to swim. Yes No No Yes black folks (race/ethnicity) black folks can't swim No
Well I don't need your fucking help and put your comment in your big fat ass you stupid asshole. Yes Yes No No No
Trans women are gay men in disguise. Yes Yes No Yes trans women (gender/gender identity/sexuality) trans women aren't women No
A Muslim walks into a gay bar in Florida. The bartender asks "what will you have?" The Muslim replies "shots for everyone" Yes Yes No Yes muslim folks (culture/origin/religion) Muslims are terrorists No
mass shooting victims (crime/tragedy victims) trivializes harm to victims
She was being so bitchy when she called me out, it must be that time of the month. Yes Yes No Yes women (gender/gender identity/sexuality) women can only be irritated when on their period;
women being assertive are bitchy
Asians are so polite, you can say the rudest things to them and they will just sit there quiet and not do anything about it. Yes Probably not No Yes asian folks (race/ethnicity) asian folks are submissive No
Jamal will monkey up the whole situation. Yes Probably No Yes black folks (race/ethnicity) black folks are monkeys;
black folks aren't people
Detailed annotation instructions

1.a)Could this post be considered offensive, disrespectful, or toxic to anyone/someone?
Does this sound insulting, rude, toxic, disrespectful, abusive, inflammatory, hateful?

Assume the author belongs to majority groups (white, male, straight, abled, etc.). Try to answer this questions while considering a broad set of people from different backgrounds, not just your own. Our purpose is to understand how disrespect/offense can show up in language, we are not making statements about (dis)agreeing with the actual content of the posts. Feel free to use the comment box to let us know if you have concerns about the content of the posts.

1.b)Was the intent of this post to be offensive/disrespectful to anyone?
Say whether you think the author meant to offend, be rude, etc.

Again, assume the author belongs to majority groups (white, male, straight, abled, etc.). It can be hard to infer the intent behind a statement, but sometimes posts are clearly offensive jokes, insults, snobism, condescension, profanity, back-handed compliments, name calling, bullying, intimidation, or aggression.

2)Does this post contain or allude to sexual content/acts?
Tell us which part of the post is about sex, and what does it mean.

Another aspect of disrespectful language deals with sexual content, either overtly or hidden. If answered yes, please use the first text box to describe which parts of the post contain euphemism, double entendre or explicit sexual content. Then, use the second text box to explain why you answered this; try to explain what the phrase means, what it refers to, what the double-entendre is about, etc.

3.a)Does the post imply offense/disrespect to an identity-related group of people
Tell us whether the post contains or implies offense/disrespect to an group (not just an individual).

Here, distinguish whether the statement is targeting a group of people (e.g., "Black people are always late"), individuals ("you're a moron"), or both ("he's clearly a gay sissy").

3.b)Which group(s) is referred to/targeted in this post?
Simply select all the groups that are referred to or targeted.

In this question, we're asking you to list all possible populations/groups/minorities that this posts references, targets, pokes fun at, etc. For ease of annotation, we categorized groups, but this is by far not an exhaustive list; use the other textboxes if the group isn't listed.

3.c)What (overly) simplistic stereotype/aspect/characteristic is referenced?
Use simple "A does ___" phrases (e.g., "women can't drive", "old people are slow"). Do not copy paste from the post

Based on the group you selected, please describe which stereotypical characteristic/action/behavior is made light of/referenced/poked fun at/targeted by this post. Use simple phrases like "gay men are promiscuous", "asians are good at math", etc. Again, this answer could reflect the (often unfair) stereotypes in US culture about this group, not necessarily your personal opinion.

3.d)Does the author of the post sound like they belong to the same minority group that is referred to by this post?
Try your best to guess whether the author belongs to the minority group(s) you marked as referred to/targeted by the post.

For example, words like "nigga" or "hoes" are associated with African American English, usually used by black folks. Additionally, people sometimes poke fun at their own community (e.g., gay men making fun of gay culture, jewish folks making fun of jewish culture, etc.).

4)If comfortable, please tell us about yourself (this will remain confidential).
Tell us whether you identify as a minority, and if so, which.

Often times, your own personal background and experiences influence what you think of as disrespectful or offensive. Given the wide variability in MTurker backgrounds, we collect this information so we can account for it in our research experiments. If you answered this question once, you can skip it in subsequent HITs.